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Brandeis University PSI Evaluation Executive Summary
Executive summary of the report by Brandeis University's Center for Youth and Communities titled "Creating New Pathways to Postsecondary: Evaluation of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Postsecondary Success (PSS) Initiative"
Blurring Boundaries: Transforming Place, Policies, and Partnerships for Postsecondary Education Attainment in Metropolitan Areas
This report, Blurring Boundaries: Transforming Place, Policies, and Partnerships for Postsecondary Education Attainment in Metropolitan Areas, examines efforts to improve educational attainment rates in select metropolitan statistical areas by considering policies that either inhibit or facilitate degree production, and identifying metropolitan-level, cross-sector collaborations that help local leaders contribute to national completion goals. Through five case studies, the report also presents a set of recommendations for policymakers and community leaders as they consider resources, programs, and policies for raising attainment.
Creating New Pathways to Postsecondary: Evaluation of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundationâ??s Postsecondary Success Initiative Executive Summary
This is the final evaluation report for NYEC's Postsecondary Success Initiative, which is part of the Postsecondary Success Strategies initiative by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. 
The Plummeting Labor Market Fortunes of Teens and Young Adults

Employment prospects for teens and young adults in the nationâ??s 100 largest metropolitan areas plummeted between 2000 and 2011. On a number of measuresâ??employment rates, labor force underutilization, unemployment, and year-round joblessnessâ??teens and young adults fared poorly, and sometimes disastrously. While labor market problems affected all young people, some groups had better outcomes than others: Non-Hispanic whites, those from higher income households, those with work experience, and those with higher levels of education were more successful in the labor market. In particular, education and previous work experience were most strongly associated with employment.

Policy and program efforts to reduce youth joblessness and labor force underutilization should focus on the following priorities: incorporating more work-based learning (such as apprenticeships, co-ops, and internships) into education and training; creating tighter linkages between secondary and post-secondary education; ensuring that training meets regional labor market needs; expanding the Earned Income Tax Credit; and facilitating the transition of young people into the labor market through enhanced career counseling, mentoring, occupational and work-readiness skills development, and the creation of short-term subsidized jobs.

FY2015 President's Budget
Obama releases FY 2015 budget.
A Midpoint Report on the True North Fund

"In July 2010, the Social Innovation Fund (SIF) awarded the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation (EMCF) $10 million (the first of three $10 million awards) to increase the scale and impact of youth development organizations whose programs have been shown to produce positive outcomes in communities of need across the United States.  EMCF and its co-investors are tackling the immense problems confronting America's low-income youth - for example, more than 22 percent of all children in the US live in poverty, and 30 percent of public school students fail to graduate from high school, leading to a lack of educational success and employment among youth and young adults across the country.

In 2011, EMCF launched the True North Fund (TNF) to aggregate private growth capital in support of nine initial (and subsequently three additional) SIF grantees.  EMCF matched the $10 million in federal funds from the SIF 1:1 with its own funds and then, in collaboration with the TNF co-investors and grantees, helped raise the remaining 2:1 match to meet the SIF's 3:1 match requirement.  EMCF also provided the grantees with additional supports, including assistance with business planning from the Bridgespan Group and with evaluation planning and implementation from MDRC, and access to executive and leadership coaching."

CCRC Intensity and Attachment

This paper examines the relationship between community college enrollment patterns and two successful student outcomesâ??credential completion and transfer to a four-year institution. It also introduces a new way of visualizing the various attendance patterns of community college students. Patterns of enrollment intensity (full-time or part-time status) and continuity (enrolling in consecutive terms or skipping one or more terms) are graphed and then clustered according to their salient features.

Using data on cohorts of first-time community college students at five colleges in a single state, the author finds that, over an 18-semester period, 10 patterns of attendance account for nearly half the students. Among the remaining students who persisted, there is astounding variation in their patterns of enrollment. Clustering these patterns reveals two relationships: the first is a positive association between enrollment continuity and earning a community college credential, and the second is a positive association between enrollment intensity and likelihood of transfer.

Faces of Austerity: How budget cuts have made us sicker, poorer, and less secure

NDD United Report:

In Washington, lawmakers and wonks think about budgets in terms of numbers, dollar signs, and decimal points. But beyond the Beltway, there are faces behind the numbers. Even seemingly small changes in federal spending can have a big impact on Americans who rely upon and benefit from federally funded programs.

Indeed, a 5 percent cut to a federal program as was required in the first year of federally mandated sequestration translates into a much bigger cut on the ground. Federal contractors, grantees, and program beneficiaries must also cope with the cumulative effects of the federal government's austerity measures, the erosion of the state and local funding base, and constrained contributions by the private and philanthropic sectors.  They are, in fact, doing much more with much less than is recognized or reported.  Thus far, the true impact of austerity has been masked behind the numbers. You have to talk to Americans, face-to-face, if you really want to understand the effects of budget cuts.

Faces of Austerity: How Budget Cuts Have Made Us Sicker, Poorer and Less Secure tells the stories of those who've been impacted most by Washington's failure to preserve the programs that keep us all healthy, safe, and educated. It is the product of months of work on behalf of hundreds of organizations representing millions of Americans nationwide.

The report provides the first ever comprehensive snapshot of austerity's impact across sectors: education, job training, public health, safety and security, housing, science, natural resources, infrastructure, and international affairs.  It features more than 40 distinct stories of individuals living with federal budget cuts in 22 states, nationwide, and even overseas.

Getting Back to Full Employment: A better bargain for working people


While most people intuitively know that low unemployment is important to job seekers, they may not realize that high levels of employment actually would make an enormous difference in the lives of large segments of the workforce who already have jobs. Particularly in an era of historically high wage and income inequality, many in the workforce depend on full employment labor markets, and the bargaining power it provides, to secure a fair share of the economy's growth. For the bottom third or even half of the wage distribution, high levels of employment are a necessary condition for improving wages, higher incomes, and better working conditions.

This book is a follow up to the book written a decade ago by the authors.  It builds on the evidence presented in that book, showing that real wage growth for workers in the bottom half of the income scale is highly dependent on the overall rate of unemployment. In the late 1990s, when the United States saw its first sustained period of low unemployment in more than a quarter century, workers at the middle and bottom of the wage distribution were able to secure substantial gains in real wages. When unemployment rose in the 2001 recession, and again following the collapse of the housing bubble, most workers no longer had the bargaining power to share in the benefits of growth. The book also documents another critical yet often overlooked side effect of full employment: improved fiscal conditions (without mindless budget policies like the current sequestration). Finally, in this volume, unlike the earlier one, the authors present a broad set of policies designed to boost growth and get the unemployment rate down to a level where far more workers have a fighting chance of getting ahead.

In This Together: The Hidden Cost of Young Adult Unemployment

"Throughout the deepest recession and the slowest recovery since World War II, young adults in America have walked an exceptionally difficult road.  The cohort of "Millenials" aged 18 to 34 have now seen double-digit unemployment rates for over 70 consecutive months, or almost six years.  The youngest workers, aged 16 to 24, are even worse off, with unemployment rates well over twice the national average-at 15 percent versus an average for the full working population of 7.3 percent.  Moreover, we have made little progress toward recovery.

In prior downturns, the employment rate for young adults nearly reached pre-recession levels within 5 years.  In the Great Recession, young adult employment had not even recovered halfway by the same point.  A quarter of all job losses for young adults came after the Great Recession was officially over.  The lack of jobs has driven many discouraged young people from the labor force altogether.  A recent report by Opportunity Nation estimates that 5.8 million young adults are neither working nor in school.

The best evidence warns that lack of work experience now will lead to dismal consequences for these jobless young people down the road in the form of repressed wages, decresed employment, and reduced productivity.  By one calculatin, young Americans aged 20-24 will lose about $21.4 billion in earnings over the next 10 years.  That's roughly $22,000 less per person than they could have expected had they not suffered through the recession.

However, our generation's challenges extend beyond each individual's struggle, or even this generation's struggle: the young adult unemployment crisis affects everyone.  Every year of historically high young adult unemployment means lower tax revenue and higher safety net expenditures for federal and state governments.  Taxpayers of all generations bear the burden.

To quantify this problem, Young Invincibles calculated the average monetary cost passed on to the taxpayer due to high youth unemployment.  Building upon our previous research into the repressed job market for young workers, we find that the costs are too high to ignore.  Chronically high young adult unemployment places heavy burdens not just on young people, but also on taxpayers of all ages."

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